Pyrometallurgy Innovation Centre (PYROSEARCH)

  • Phase equilibria in the ZnO-rich area of the Fe-Zn-O system in air

    Hansson, Robert; Hayes, Peter C.; Jak, Evgueni (2007). The phase equilibria in the Fe-Zn-O system in the range 900-1580degreesC in air have been experimentally studied using equilibration and quenching techniques. The compositions of the phases at equilibrium were determined using electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA). The ferrous and ferric bulk iron concentrations were measured with a wet chemical analysis using the ammonium metavanadate technique. X-ray powder diffraction analysis (XRD) was used to characterise the phases. Iron oxide dissolved in zincite was found to be present principally in the ferric form. The XRD analysis and the composition measurements both indicate that zincite is the only phase stable in the ZnO-rich area in the range of conditions investigated. The solubility of the iron oxide in zincite rapidly increases at temperatures above 1200degreesC; the morphology of the zincite crystals also sharply changes between 1200 and 1300degreesC from rounded to plate-like crystals. The plate-like zincite forms a refractory network-the type of microstructure beneficial to the Imperial Smelting Process (ISP) sinter performance. The software program FactSage with a thermodynamically optimised database was used to predict phase equilibria in the Fe-Zn-O system.

  • Phase equilibria at sub-solidus conditions in the Fe-Mg-Zn-O system in air

    Hansson, Robert; Hayes, Peter C.; Jak, Evgueni (2007). The phase equilibria in the Fe-Mg-Zn-O system in the temperature range 1100-1550degreesC in air have been experimentally studied using equilibration and quenching followed by electron probe X-ray microanalysis. The compositions of condensed phases in equilibrium in the binary MgO-ZnO system and the ternary Fe-Mg-O system have been reported at sub-solidus in air. Pseudo-ternary sections of the quaternary Fe-Mg-Zn-O system at 1100, 1250 and 1400degreesC in air were constructed using the experimental data. The solid solution of iron oxide, MgO and ZnO in the periclase (Mg, Zn, Fe)O, spinel (Mg2+, Fe2+, Zn2+)(x)Fe(2+y)3+O4 and zincite (Zn, Mg, Fe)O phases were found to be extensive under the conditions investigated. A continuous spinel solid solution is formed between the magnesioferrite (Mg2+, Fe2+)(x)Fe(2+y)3+O4 and franklinite (Zn2+, Fe2+)(x)Fe(2+y)3+O4 end-members at 1100 and 1250degreesC, extending to magnetite (Fe2+)(x)Fe(2+y)3+O4 at 1400degreesC in air. The compositions along the spinel boundaries were found to be non-stoichiometric, the magnitude of the non-stoichiometry being a function of composition and temperature in air. It was found that hematite dissolves neither MgO nor ZnO in air.

  • Experimental study of phase equilibria in the Al-Fe-Zn-O system in air

    Hansson, Robert M.; Hayes, Peter C.; Jak, Evgueni (2007). The phase equilibria in the Al-Fe-Zn-O system in the range 1250 °C to 1695 °C in air have been experimentally studied using equilibration and quenching techniques followed by electron probe X-ray microanalysis. The phase diagram of the binary Al2O3-ZnO system and isothermal sections of the Al2O3-“Fe2O3”-ZnO system at 1250 °C, 1400 °C, and 1550 °C have been constructed and reported for the first time. The extents of solid solutions in the corundum (Al,Fe)2O3, hematite (Fe,Al)2O3, Al2O3*Fe2O3 phase (Al,Fe)2O3, spinel (Al,Fe,Zn)O4, and zincite (Al,Zn,Fe)O primary phase fields have been measured. Corundum, hematite, and Al2O3*Fe2O3 phases dissolve less than 1 mol pct zinc oxide. The limiting compositions of Al2O3*Fe2O3 phase measured in this study at 1400 °C are slightly nonstoichiometric, containing more Al2O3 then previously reported. Spinel forms an extensive solid solution in the Al2O3-“Fe2O3”-ZnO system in air with increasing temperature. Zincite was found to dissolve up to 7 mole pct of aluminum in the presence of iron at 1550 °C in air. A meta-stable Al2O3-rich phase of the approximate composition Al8FeZnO14+x was observed at all of the conditions investigated. Aluminum dissolved in the zincite in the presence of iron appears to suppress the transformation from a round to platelike morphology.

  • Experimental study of phase equilibria in the Fe-Sn-Zn-O system in air

    Hansson, R.; Hayes, P. C.; Jak, E. (2007). The four-component Fe-Sn-Zn-O system was studied experimentally in the range of temperatures from 1100 to 1400 degrees C in air using high temperature equilibration and quenching techniques followed by electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA). Phase equilibrium relations and the extent of solid solutions among the phases cassiterite (Sn,Zn)O-2, hematite (Fe,Sn,Zn)(2)O-3, spinel (Fe,Sn,Zn)(3)O-4 and zincite (Zn,Fe,Sn)O are reported. Phase equilibria in the pseudo-binary systems Fe2O3-SnO2 and SnO2-ZnO are reported in air in the temperature ranges from 1100 to 1400 degrees C and 1200 to 1400 degrees C, respectively.

  • Prediction of phase equilibria and viscosity in complex coal ash slag systems

    Jak, E.; Saulov, D. N.; Kondratiev, A.; Hayes, P. C. (2007).

  • Liquidus temperatures in calcium ferrite slags in equilibrium with molten copper

    Ilyushechkin, A.; Hayes, P. C.; Jak, E. (2007). Experimental laboratory methods have been developed that enable phase-equilibria studies to be carried out on slags in the system Ca-Cu-Fe-O in equilibrium with metallic copper. These techniques involve equilibration at temperature, rapid quenching, and chemical analysis of the phases using electron-probe X-ray microanalysis (EPNIA). Equilibration experiments have been carried out in the temperature range of 1150 degreesC to 1250 degreesC (1423 to 1523 K) and in the composition range of 4 to 80 wt pct "Cu2O," 0 to 25 wt pct CaO, and 20 to 75 wt pct "Fe2O3" in equilibrium with metallic copper. Liquidus and solidus data are reported for the primary-phase fields of spinel (magnetite) and dicalcium ferrite. The resulting data have been used to construct liquidus isotherms of the CaO-"Cu2O"-"Fe2O3" system at metallic copper saturation.

  • The effect of the CaO/SiO2 ratio on the phase equilibria in the ZnO-“Fe2O3”-(PbO + CaO + SiO2) system in air: CaO/SiO2 = 0.1, PbO/(CaO + SiO2) = 6.2, and CaO/SiO2 = 0.6, PbO/(CaO + SiO2) = 4.3

    Jak, E.; Hayes, P. C. (2007). Experimental studies on phase equilibria in the multi-component system PbO-ZnO-CaO-SiO2-FeO-Fe2O3 in air have been conducted to characterize the phase relations of a complex slag system used in the oxidation smelting of lead and in typical lead blast furnace sinters. The liquidus in two pseudoternary sections ZnO-Fe2O3-(PbO + CaO + SiO2) with the CaO/SiO2 weight ratio of 0.1 and the PbO/(CaO + SiO2) weight ratio of 6.2, and with CaO/SiO2 weight ratio of 0.6 and the PbO/(CaO + SiO2) weight ratio of 4.3, have been constructed.

  • Phase-equilibrium data and liquidus for the system "MnO"-CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 at Al2O3/SiO2 of 0.55 and 0.65

    Roghani, G.; Jak, E.; Hayes, P. (2007). Phase-equilibrium data and liquidus isotherms for the system MnO-CaO-(Al2O3 + SiO2) at silicomanganese alloy saturation have been determined in the temperature range of 1373 to 1723 K. The results are presented in the form of the pseudoternary sections MnO-CaO-(Al2O3 + SiO2) with Al2O3/SiO2 weight ratios of 0.55 and 0.65. The primary-phase fields have been identified in this range of conditions.

  • The prediction and representation of phase equilibria and physicochemical properties in complex slag systems

    Jak, E.; Kondratiev, A.; Christie, S.; Hayes, P. C. (2007). The development of new experimental techniques for the determination of phase equilibria in complex slag systems, chemical thermodynamic, and viscosity models is reported. The new experimental data, and new thermodynamic and viscosity models, have been combined in a custom-designed computer software package to produce limiting operability diagrams for slag systems. These diagrams are used to describe phase equilibria and physicochemical properties in complex slag systems. The approach is illustrated with calculations on the system FeO-Fe2O3-CaO-SiO-Al2O3 at metallic iron saturation, slags produced in coal slagging gasifiers, and in the reprocessing of nonferrous smelting slags. This article was presented at the Mills Symposium Molten Metals, Slags and Glasses-Characterisation of Properties and Phenomena held in London in August 2000.

  • Experimental study of phase equilibria in the PbO-ZnO-"Fe2O3"-(CaO+SiO2) system in air for the lead and zinc blast furnace sinters (CaO/SiO2 weight ratio of 0.933 and PbO/(CaO+SiO2) ratios of 2.0 and 3.2)

    Jak, Evgueni; Zhao, Baojun; Hayes, Peter C.; Harvey, Ian (2007). Experimental studies on phase equilibria and liquidus in the multicomponent system PbO-ZnO-CaO-SiO2-FeO-Fe2O3 in air have been conducted over the temperature range between 1323 K (1050 degreesC) and 1623 K (1350 degreesC) to characterize the phase relations of the complex slag systems encountered in lead and zinc blast furnace sinters. The liquidus in two pseudoternary sections ZnO-Fe2O3-(PbO + CaO + SiO2) with the CaO/SiO2 weight ratio of 0.933 and PbO/(CaO + SiO2) weight ratios of 2.0 and 3.2 have been constructed.

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