Pyrometallurgy Innovation Centre (PYROSEARCH)

  • Phase equilibria and thermodynamics of zinc fuming slags

    Jak, E.; Hayes, P. (2007). A range of materials is treated in zinc fuming processes to recover metal values and produce benign slag waste products. The selection of the optimum process conditions in these various technologies can be greatly assisted by the use of a chemical thermodynamic model of the system. In this paper the effects of slag chemistry on the liquidus temperatures, subliquidus phase equilibria and thermodynamic properties are described by the F*A*C*T computer package with the new thermodynamic database of the ZnO-PbO-FeO-Fe2O3-CaO-SiO2 system. The implications of these findings for plant practice are discussed.

  • Coupled experimental and thermodynamic study of the Zn-Fe-Si-O system

    Jak, Evgueni; Hayes, Peter C.; Degterov, Sergei; Pelton, Arthuir D. (2007). Experimental and thermodynamic modeling studies have been carried out on the Zn-Fe-Si-O system. This research is part of a wider program to characterize zinc/lead industrial slags and sinters in the PbO-ZnO-SiO2-CaO-FeO-Fe2O3 system. Experimental investigations involve high-temperature equilibration and quenching techniques followed by electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA). Liquidus temperatures and solid solubilities of the crystalline phases were measured in the temperature range from 1200 °C to 1450 °C (1473 to 1723 K) in the zinc ferrite, zincite, willemite, and tridymite primary-phase fields in the Zn-Fe-Si-O system in air. These equilibrium data for the Zn-Fe-Si-O system in air, combined with previously reported data for this system, were used to obtain an optimized self-consistent set of parameters of thermodynamic models for all phases.

  • Experimental study of phase equilibria in the "FeO"-ZnO-(CaO+SiO2) system with CaO/SiO2 weight ratios of 0.33, 0.93, and 1.2 in equilibrium with metallic iron

    Jak, Evgueni; Zhao, Baojun; Hayes, Peter C. (2007). The pseudoternary sections FeO-ZnO-(CaO + SiO2) with CaO/SiO2 weight ratios of 0.33, 0.93, and 1.2 in equilibrium with metallic iron have been experimentally investigated in the temperature range from 1000 degreesC to 1300 degreesC (1273 to 1573 K). The liquidus surfaces in these pseudoternary sections have been experimentally determined in the composition range from 0 to 33 wt pct ZnO and 30 to 70 wt pct (CaO + SiO2). The sections contain primary-phase fields of wustite (FexZn1-xO1+y), zincite (ZnzFe1-zO), fayalite (Fu(w)Zn(2-w)SiO(4)), melilite (Ca2ZnuFe1-uSi2O7), willemite (ZnvFe2-vSiO4), dicalcium silicate (Ca2SiO4), pseudowollastonite and wollastonite (CaSiO3), and tridymite (SiO2). The phase equilibria involving the liquid phase and the solid solutions-have also been measured.

  • Experimental study of phase equilibria in the PbO-Al2O3-SiO2 system

    Chen, S.; Zhao, B.; Hayes, P. C.; Jak, E. (2007).

  • Experimental study of phase equilibria in the PbO-MgO-SiO2 system

    Chen, S.; Zhao, B.; Jak, E.; Hayes, P. C. (2007). Equilibrium phase relations in the PbO-Al2O3-SiO2 system have been investigated experimentally by means of high-temperature equilibration, quenching, and electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA). The system has 21 primary phase fields including three monoxides (PbO, Al2O3, and SiO2), seven binary compounds (Al6Si2O13, PbAl2O4, PbAl12O19, Pb2Al2O5, PbSiO3, Pb2SiO4, and Pb4SiO6), and eleven ternary compounds (PbAl2Si2O8, Pb3Al10SiO20, Pb4Al2Si2O11, Pb4Al4SiO12, Pb4Al4Si3O16, Pb4Al4Si5O20, Pb5Al2Si10O28, Pb6Al2Si6O21, Pb8Al2Si4O19, Pb12Al2Si17O49, and Pb12Al2Si20O55). Three new ternary compounds, Pb4Al4SiO12, Pb4Al4Si5O20, and Pb12Al2Si17O49, were observed and characterized by EPMA. No extensive solid solution in any of the compounds was found in the present study. The liquidus isotherms were experimentally determined in most of the primary phase fields in the temperature range from 923 to 1873 K, and the ternary phase diagram of the PbO-Al2O3-SiO2 System has been constructed.

  • Experimental study of phase equilibria in the systems Fe-Zn-O and Fe-Zn-Si-O at metallic iron saturation

    Jak, E; Zhao, B; Hayes, PC (2007). The reported experimental work on the systems Fe-Zn-O and Fe-Zn-Si-O in equilibrium with metallic iron is part of a wider research program that combines experimental and thermodynamic computer modeling techniques to characterize zinc/lead industrial slags and sinters in the system PbO-ZnO-SiO2-CaO-FeO-Fe2O3. Extensive experimental,investigations using high-temperature equilibration and quenching techniques followed by electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA) were carried out. Special experimental; procedures were developed to enable accurate measurements in these ZnO-containing systems to be performed in equilibrium with metallic iron; The systems Fe-Zn-O and FeZn-Si-O were experimentally investigated in equilibrium with metallic iron in the temperature ranges 900 degreesC to 1200 degreesC (1173 to 1473 K) and from 1000 degreesC to 1350 degreesC (1273 to 1623 K), respectively. The liquidus surface in the system Fe-Zn-Si-O in equilibrium with metallic iron was characterized in the composition ranges 0 to 33 wt pet ZnO and 0 to 40 wt pet SiO2. The wustite (Fe,Zn)O, zincite (Zn,Fe)O, willemite (Zn,Fe)(2)SiO4, arid fayalite: (Fe,Zn)(2)SiO4 solid solutions in equilibrium with metallic iron were measured.

  • Coupled experimental and thermodynamic modeling studies for metallurgical smelting and coal combustion slag systems

    Jak, E.; Degterov, S.; Zhao, B.; Pelton, A. D.; Hayes, P. C. (2007). An extensive research program focused on the characterization of various metallurgical complex smelting and coal combustion slags is being undertaken. The research combines both experimental and thermodynamic modeling studies. The approach is illustrated by work on the PbO-ZnO-Al2O3-FeO-Fe2O3-CaO-SiO2 system. Experimental measurements of the liquidus and solidus have been undertaken under oxidizing and reducing conditions using equilibration, quenching, and electron probe X-ray microanalysis. The experimental program has been planned so as to obtain data for thermodynamic model development as well as for pseudo-ternary Liquidus diagrams that can be used directly by process operators. Thermodynamic modeling has been carried out using the computer system FACT, which contains thermodynamic databases with over 5000 compounds and evaluated solution models. The FACT package is used for the calculation of multiphase equilibria in multicomponent systems of industrial interest. A modified quasi-chemical solution model is used for the liquid slag phase. New optimizations have been carried out, which significantly improve the accuracy of the thermodynamic models for lead/zinc smelting and coal combustion processes. Examples of experimentally determined and calculated liquidus diagrams are presented. These examples provide information of direct relevance to various metallurgical smelting and coal combustion processes.

  • The effect of Al2O3 on liquidus temperatures of fayalite slags

    Zhao, B; Jak, E; Hayes, PC (2007). The effect of alumina on the liquidus temperatures of fayalite slags at iron saturation has been investigated experimentally. Equilibrated synthetic slags were quenched, and the samples were subsequently examined using optical microscopy and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). The isotherms in the fayalite primary field and boundary lines were determined, and the results were presented in the form of pseudo-ternary phase diagrams of FeO-CaO-SiO2 with 0, 2, 4, and 6 wt pet Al2O3 in the slag. The experimental results show that the alumina addition expands the fayalite primary phase field and decreases the liquidus temperatures in the fayalite primary phase field.

  • Experimental study of phase equilibria in the system PbO-ZnO-SiO2

    Jak, Evgueni; Zhao, Baojun; Hayes, Peter C.; Liu, Naigang (2007). An experimental study on the ternary system PbO-ZnO-SiO2, in air by high-temperature equilibration and quenching techniques followed by electron probe X-ray microanalysis was carried out as part of the wider research program on the six-component system PbO-ZnO-SiO2-CaO-FeO-Fe2O3, which combines experimental and thermodynamic computer modeling techniques to characterize zinc and lead industrial slags. Liquidus and solidus data were reported for all primary phase fields in the system PbO-ZnO-SiO2 in the temperature range 640 degrees C to 1400 degrees C (913 to 1673 K).

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